Ran out to Microcenter and picked up a new hard drive this morning. The new drive's actually bigger than the old one--80 GB instead of 60--although that's just because that's what was available. Paid for it with my parents' credit card, although I have to pay them back.
I brought it home, hooked it up, booted the Gentoo LiveCD, and tried to copy it over with 'dd' (Linux's copy-anything-without-fucking-with-it command). No dice--it bailed as soon as it hit the bad parts of the 60gb drive. Even when I gave it the "conv=noerror" option (which makes it ignore errors) it still apparently missed Really Important Stuff, like parts of the partition table. Ugh. So I went ahead and partitioned and formatted the new drive by hand (actually, with larger partitions much of the time), then copied things over by mounting the source and destination and running "cp -a". I kept an eye on which files failed to copy; surprisingly enough, only /var showed errors during copying, and only for log files and a few other non-critical things. Miracle of miracles.
(By the way, anybody who says Gentoo installations don't help you learn how to run Linux is full of shit. I used several techniques today which I learned from installing Gentoo, and several more I would have learned from it had I not spent a year maintaining a Debian system.)
A couple reboots later and Gentoo was getting to the point where it tried to initialize the RAID. At that point it needed manual intervention; I took the single-user mode command line it offered and reassembled the RAIDs manually. They're now rebuilding--very slowly, taking about an hour forty each. I'll probably reboot into full multi-user mode tomorrow, and hopefully everything will work.
I probably would have gone insane today except that my copy of Megatokyo Volume 3 arrived just in time to amuse me for the last twelve hours or so. I've already read it cover-to-cover, but considering how much use Volume 2 has seen, I doubt it'll just gather dust for the rest of eternity.
Brian (vorkon) seems to have sent some money to help me with the new drive--it's more than enough so that I can afford it, although it's still taking more than half of my bank account. Thanks, Brian! (And I'll add some more space to your account when Filespace comes back up...)